(a) Ignore the pressure term and determine the general solution to the resulting equations. Show that the speed of fluid parcels is constant. Show that the trajectory of the fluid parcels is a circle with radius , where is the fluid speed.
(b) What is the period of oscillation of a fluid parcel?
(c) Extra credit
If the parcel moves on a straight line in reference frame, why is the answer to (b) is not the same as a period of rotations of the frame of reference? (To answer this fully you need to understand the dynamics of inertial oscillations and inertia circles - see Durran 1993, Egger 1999, Phillips 2000.
Extra Credit Repeat the calculations above with added Coriolis force, i.e. by adding term to the horizontal momentum equation.
(a) Show that the pressure divided by the density scales as .
(b) Show that the horizontal divergence of the geostrophic wind vanishes. Thus, argue that the scaling is an overestimate for the magnitude of the vertical velocity. (Optional extra: obtain a scaling estimate for the magnitude of vertical velocity in rapidly rotating flow.)
(c) Using these results, or otherwise, discuss whether hydrostatic balance is more or less likely to hold in a rotating flow that in non-rotating flow.
Dr Yuri V Lvov 2020-02-25